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    Temporal Dead Zone in Javascript

    • avatar
      Nico Prananta

    Recently, I encountered a term on Twitter that piqued my curiosity— the Temporal Dead Zone (TDZ) in JavaScript. Despite its complex-sounding name, the concept behind TDZ is straightforward and plays a crucial role in how JavaScript handles variable declarations.

    When you declare variables in JavaScript using let and const, these declarations introduce a so-called Temporal Dead Zone. But what does that mean? Essentially, it's a fancy way of saying there's a period where the variable exists but can't be used just yet. If you try to access the variable in this no-man's land, JavaScript throws a reference error. It's there, but not quite ready for action.

    For instance, attempting to log myVar before declaring it with let causes a ReferenceError, showing that you have entered the TDZ:

    console.log(myVar) // ReferenceError: Cannot access 'myVar' before initialization
    let myVar = 5

    Here, myVar is untouchable from the start of the block until the declaration is executed. This illustrates the temporal aspect of TDZ—it's all about timing rather than positioning.

    Consider a case where the TDZ's timing plays a crucial role:

      const func = () => console.log(letVar) // TDZ hasn't ended yet but no error here
      let letVar = 3 // TDZ ends here
      func() // Called outside TDZ, so it works!

    However, TDZ can introduce some confusing scenarios, especially with lexical scoping. Take this snippet:

    function test() {
      var foo = 33
      if (foo) {
        let foo = foo + 55 // ReferenceError here

    The ReferenceError in the example occurs because the foo on the right side of the equation inside the if block refers back to the let foo declaration. The issue here is that let foo hasn't been initialized yet—it's still in the Temporal Dead Zone. This means that although foo has been declared, trying to access it before it's officially initialized results in an error because it's still within this so-called dead zone.

    Another head-scratcher involves parameter shadowing:

    function go(n) {
      console.log(n) // Outputs the object since `n` is not in TDZ
      for (let n of n.a) {
        console.log(n) // Error: n is in TDZ
    go({ a: [1, 2, 3] })

    This error highlights how the n within the loop's TDZ shadows the parameter n, causing confusion when we try to access n.a.

    So, why does JavaScript have the TDZ? It's all about reducing errors. Without the TDZ, it'd be easy to accidentally use variables before they're properly set up, leading to subtle bugs. The TDZ encourages cleaner, more predictable coding by enforcing a stricter order of variable declaration and initialization.

    If you're wondering how this compares to variables declared with var, here's the deal: var declarations are hoisted to the top of their scope, making them accessible before their actual declaration line, albeit as undefined. This lack of a TDZ with var can lead to its own pitfalls and confusions.

    Knowing about the Temporal Dead Zone (TDZ) in JavaScript is crucial for writing strong, bug-free code. It helps you have a better development process. When you're declaring variables, always keep the TDZ in mind to avoid errors from accessing them too soon.

    Are you working in a team environment and your pull request process slows your team down? Then you have to grab a copy of my book, Pull Request Best Practices!